T-14 Armata Next Generation Main Battle Tank Of Russia- Uralvagonzavod
T-14 Armata is the Next Generation Main Battle Tank Of Russia manufactured by Uralvagonzavod. 1200 hp Engine powers the T-14 Armata Main Battle tank.
The Armata is a new Russian Main Battle Tank (MBT). It is also referred as the T-14. Its development commenced in 2011. The Armata was developed as a replacement to the cancelled T-95, and possibly uses some of its technology. The whole project was kept in high secrecy. In 2012 the project was approved by the Russian MoD.
First mock-up was revealed to Russian military officials in 2013. The new MBT was first publicly revealed in 2015. A first batch of 12 pre-production tanks was delivered to the Russian Army in 2015. However soon after the 2015 Victory Day Parade these pre-production tanks returned to the manufacturer for further testing and improvements.
There were some signs that Russia was preparing to launch a full-scale production of these tanks. For example new production line for the Atmata tank guns was launched. In 2018 Russian MoD ordered a first batch of 100 of these new tanks. First production tanks were planned to be delivered during the same year.
However delivery date was postponed a number of times due to funding problems and technical issues. In 2019 there were reports that there are technical issues with all major components of the Armata. These problems were partially caused by sanctions imposed on Russia due to the military actions in Ukraine.
It was announced that deliveries of the first batch of pre-production tanks will begin in 2019 or 2020. Once in service, the T-14 Armata will gradually replace the ageing T-72, T-80 and T-90 tanks that become increasingly out-dated.
The T-14 Armata is a new-generation tank. It is a clean sheet design with a number of advanced features. It has little in common with the current T-90 and other older Soviet tanks. Actually it it the first Russian truly new production tank since the T-72, that was adopted back in 1973. Design of the Armata focuses on heavier armor and crew survivability. Exact technical specifications of the new T-14 Armata MBT remain classified.
The new tank is much bigger, than the T-90. It is nearly as big as the German Leopard 2A7. This tank has a completely unmanned turret. Even though the concept of unmanned tank turret is not new, the T-14 Armata is the world’s first production tank with unmanned turret.
This main battle tank is operated by a crew of 3 men, including commander, gunner and driver. It is in line with Russian tank-building concept, that the tank should be operated by a smaller crew in order to reduce its dimensions and weight and improve protection. Armata lacks gunner, as the gun is loaded by an autoloader. It is worth noting that most Western MBTs have a crew of 4.
The T-14 Armata might be one of the most protected MBTs in the world. It has newly-developed base armor, made of steel, ceramics and composite materials. Also Armata has a new Malakhit add-on explosive reactive armor that is claimed to be of new generation. As usual this MBT is fitted with NBC protection and automatic fire suppression systems. It has been reported that T-14 Armata will be fitted with new Afganit active protection system.
However in 2018 it appeared that there are setbacks with development of the Afghanit. By 2018 prototypes of this system were not completed and were not ready for testing. The tank has a new countermeasures system that reduces the chance of being hit by enemy ATGW with semi-automatic guidance. This new Russian tank uses smoke grenade dischargers of new type.
The tank uses electrical armament stabilization and turret traverse systems. These are more reliable and safer for the crew than older hydraulic systems. Furthermore these provide a quick turn of the gun in proper direction.
All crew members are seated in a well protected armored cell. It is separated from automatic loader and ammunition. The tank has improved resistance to damage. It can operate even with penetrated armor, as far as the crew cell is intact. It is the first production MBT with such crew layout.
The tank is armed with a 2A82 (or 2A82-1M) 125 mm smoothbore gun. This new gun has longer range and is more accurate than the old 2A46M gun of the T-90 MBT. The gun is completed with an autoloader. It was planned that the tank will be capable of firing programmable ammunition.
The T-14 Armata is capable of firing gun-launched anti-tank guided missiles in the same manner as ordinary projectiles. These missiles have a range of about 5 km and can also target low-flying helicopters. A total of 40 rounds are carried for this tank, and 32 of these rounds are ready-to-use.
There is also a remotely-controlled weapon station, armed with a 7.62 mm machine gun. This weapon station also functions an commander’s independent sight that gives the tank a hunter-killer capability.
The T-14 Armata MBT is fitted with new fire control system. It is also equipped with a battlefield management system. Commander’s and gunner’s workstations are identical.
Initially it has been reported that this new main battle tank is powered by an A-82-2 turbocharged diesel engine, developing 1 200 hp. It is a new-generation engine that is much more compact than the previous Russian tank engines. However in 2019 information emerged that the tank packs a more powerful A-85-3 engine, developing 1 500 hp. The engine is located at the rear.
It is completed in one block with an automatic transmission. The whole powerpack can be easily removed and replaced in field condition. Western tanks had this feature since the Cold War era. However Armata is the first Soviet/Russian tank to have engine and transmission built into one module.
There is auxiliary power unit, which powers all system when the engine is turned off. Furthermore it ensures the smooth start of the engine at low temperatures. However by 2019 Chelyabinsk Traktor Plant, producer of the Armata’s engine is close to a state of bankrupcy.
The T-14 Armata tank has 7 roadwheels. Most modern tanks have a top speed of 70 km/h. Maximum road speed of the Armata is claimed to be 75-80 km/h. This tank has a built-in self-entrenching blade and can prepare itself a defensive position within 12-40 minutes, depending on the ground type.
From the earliest stages the Armata was designed to be a versatile platform for a whole host of armored vehicles. A number of specialized vehicles, such as self-propelled artillery system, heavy IFV, armored recovery vehicle, heavy flamethrower system, engineering vehicle, self-propelled air-defense vehicle and other support machines are planned to be based on this platform.
T-14 Armata Variants
Heavy infantry fighting vehicle. It is also referred as the T-15. It was first publicly revealed in 2015. This vehicle can carry 6-8 fully-equipped troops. It is one of the most protected, if not the most protected IFV in the world. The Armata tank has a rear powerpack arrangement. That became an issue for the designers in order to make troop compartment in the rear part of the vehicle.
So the Armata infantry fighting vehicle has a swapped front end with the rear. It is driving backwards comparing with the original Armata MBT. A first batch of 12 pre-production vehicles was delivered to the Russian Army in 2015. However soon after the 2015 Victory Day Parade these pre-production infantry fighting vehicles returned to the manufacturer for improvements and further testing. In 2018 an improved variant of the Armata heavy IFV with unmanned 57mm turret was publicly revealed. It packs a much heavier punch.
BMO-2 is a proposed specialized heavy armored personnel carrier. It is a dedicated transporter for flamethrower squads, armed with RPO PDM-A (Shmel-M) portable infantry flamethrowers. It has less space for the dismounts, but carries 42 portable infantry flamethrowers.
Armored recovery vehicle. It is also referred as the T-16. Prototype was completed in 2013.